Monday, May 25, 2020
May Samkari 09/20/2016 Historical Events Paper Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was done in the campus of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama between the year of 1932 and 1947. It is designed to discover the natural history of syphilis among the African-American population in hopes of justifying treatment programs for blacks Initially the participants have been told that they were treated for Ã¢â¬Å"bad bloodÃ¢â¬ , but they did not receive any treatment from the experiment (Ã¢â¬Å"About,Ã¢â¬ n.d.; Ã¢â¬Å"The Tuskegee,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). Actually the standard treatment for the disease which discovered in 1947 was withheld. They have been offered medical care, free meals and survivors insurance. without the benefit of patients informed consent The men were never given adequate treatment for their disease. Even when penicillin became the drug of choice for syphilis in 1947 The participant became aware of their involvement in this experiment only after forty years after many had died. However in 1997, an apology by President Bill Clinton was only witnessed by the remaining seven participants from the experiment. Based from this experiments, The Belmont Report Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research was submitted in April 18,1979 to Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.? (Ã¢â¬Å"Impact,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). Institutional Review Board. On September 30, 1978, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research submitted its report entitled Ã¢â¬Å"TheShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction: The blight on human history known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study was on all counts an immoral and unethical research study. Public Health Services were the ones conducting the experiment, which went on for years (from 1932 to 1972) and throughout the entire thing human beings were used as laboratory animals (The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, 2000). Unfortunately, this study was conducted when racism was still common, meaning that the human Ã¢â¬Å"lab ratsÃ¢â¬ were poor black men, because theyRead MoreBad Blood: the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Essays1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesANALYSIS OF THE BOOK BAD BLOOD: THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT Dr. Bradley Moody PUAD 6010 By 22 November 2004 Introduction The book BAD BLOOD: THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT by James H. Jones was a very powerful compilation of years of astounding research, numerous interviews, and some very interesting positions on the ethical and moral issues associated with the study of human beings under the Public Health Service (PHS). The Tuskegee study had nothing to do with treatmentRead MoreBad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Essay2436 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagessurrounding Tuskegee, Macon County, Alabama, the United States Public Health Service (PHS) and the Rosenwald Foundation began a survey and small treatment program for African-Americans with syphilis. Within a few months, the deepening depression, the lack of funds from the foundation, and the large number of untreated cases provided the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s researchers with what seemed to be an unprecedented opportunity to study a seemingly almost Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ experimentation of latent syphilis in African-AmericanRead MoreMedical Research: Tuskegee Syphilis and Nazi Human Experiments678 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesratsÃ¢â¬ in both Tuskegee syphilis study and the nazi human experiments were living human beings. History repeats itself as the two studies occur with the same intention and procedures. It was a result of ignorance and the idea of hierarchy: superiority and inferiority. The inhumane action of the researchers led to policies that protects against barbarous experiments. Tuskegee syphilis study started in 1932 with a good intention, scientists were trying to examine the abundance of syphilis within ruralRead MoreBad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment by James H. Jones1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment by James H. Jones Introduction The book BAD BLOOD: THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT by James H. Jones was a very powerful compilation of years of astounding research, numerous interviews, and some very interesting positions on the ethical and moral issues associated with the study of human beings under the Public Health Service (PHS). The Tuskegee study had nothing to do with treatment Ãâ¦ it was a nontherapeutic experiment, aimed at compiling dataRead MoreThe Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Essay1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment The Tuskegee Syphilis experiment (The official name was Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male) began in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. It was an experiment on African Americans to study syphilis and how it affected the body and killed its victims done by Tuskegee Institute U.S. Public Health Service researchers. The initial purpose of the Syphilis study Ã¢â¬Å"was to record the natural history of syphilis in BlacksÃ¢â¬ (Tuskegee University, Ã¢â¬Å"About the USPHS Syphilis StudyRead MoreThe Infamous Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Essay1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconducted by the U.S. Public Heath Services to study the progression of untreated syphilis. The study consisted of 600 African American men, 399 who had previous had syphilis before the study began and 201 without the disease. Throughout the study many unethical things happened and the subjects of the study were not given the full truth of what was happening and what was going to happen. According to wikipedia, the Tus kegee Study was arguably the most infamous biomedical research study in U.S. historyRead MoreThe Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment : A Black Massacre1514 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: Another Black Massacre Alesha Jones History Significance of Race in America Section 009 Professor Abu Sayeed The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was a clinical research study that took place in Macon County, Tuskegee, Alabama. The experiment was coordinated by the United States Public Health Service and carried out for forty years (Jones, 1). The experiment began in 1932 and ended in 1972, causing harm toRead MoreThe Tuskegee Syphilis Study And The Stanford Prison Experiment883 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfederal standards for performing research with human and animal participants, known as, psychological ethical codes. The Tuskegee syphilis study and the Stanford prison experiment highlighted a psychological study without proper patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ consent and appropriate treatment, resulting in a research disaster with unethical incidents. During the timespan of 1932 to 1972 in Tuskegee, Macon County, Alabama, 600 poor and rural African American men were participants for a study done by the United States PublicRead MoreDeadly Deception Documentary Film1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbe given the right to informed consent if the research could result in possible harm? Is human experimentation in light of the Tuskegee study justified? These are just some of the questions that arose during the presentation of the film Deadly Deception. This film featured the government sponsored Tuskegee experiment and documents this forty year study of untreated syphilis in the black males of Macon County, Alabama. This review will examine the film Deadly Deception in light of the appropriateness
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 33 Words: 9886 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? An electronic space for meeting new people, staying connected with friends and sharing ideas: Virtual reality or social reality in the age of narcissism? A study of hi5 network as an online community; its connection to offline relationships and motivations and expectations of people that become members. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Media Dissertations Internet Changed Lives" essay for you Create order CHAPTER ONE Abstract The internet has changed the lives of many individuals and, with millions of people online it arguably represents the single most influential technological advancement of the Twenty First century (Aitchison, J. and Lewis, D. (2003) 1) (Crews, C. and Thierer, A. (2003) 3). Therefore the world of the internet is one which becomes more and more relevant in the lives of individuals across the world (Aitchison, J. and Lewis, D. (2003) 1) (Gauntlett, D., Gottlieb, N. and Mclelland, M. (2003) 19). The internet has touched the lives of most people within the 20-25 age groups, and this it perhaps even more relevant within Greek society, where internet dating and socialising has proven exceptionally popular. It is therefore not surprising that the internet is used effectively as a medium for the formation of relationships. The internet has given us electronic mail; internet blogs; pop-up message advertising; video messaging; smiley faces; on-line dating and friendship services; instant messages and internet threads and all of these have changed the way that individuals communicate with one another (Aitchison, J. and Lewis, D. (2003) 1) (Jordan, T. (1999) Ch.1). These more contemporary methods of communicating have impacted society at many levels (Crews, C. and Thierer, A. (2003) 3) (Gauntlett, D., Gottlieb, N. and Mclelland, M. (2003) 19) and this may be seen through an analysis of contemporary communication discourses and methods of socialisation. Specifically, the website www.hi5.com has provided a nexus where all of these technological and communication techniques have recognition and importance. Hi5 is an online community where communication is uniquely confined to electronic means and discourses. Introduction This thesis will explore the relevance of the internet to the formation of key social relationships within the 20-25 age group of Greek society. The fact that the formation of relationships online influences and shapes the nature of relationships offline is an interesting one to approach and it will be focused on throughout the thesis. The nature of the internet and specifically websites such as Hi5 as an electronic space which facilities human interaction and the maintenance of relationships will be considered. The dichotomy between social and virtual reality will be broached within this context and the writer will attempt to comment on which description of the internet is most appropriate. The question of whether the internet is a social reality in an age of narcissism or a virtual reality will also be addressed within the research. The subject matter of the thesis will also involve a consideration of the ways that the internet has indirectly and directly affected offline relationships and the motivations and expectations of people that become members. This is an important perspective; however it is one that could easily be neglected. Therefore one of the most important points which the thesis will seek to express is the pervasiveness of the internet, and specifically the pervasiveness of the online community which engages Greeks in the 20-25 age group, and its ability to influence their offline as well as online lives, self representations, motivations and expectations. The thesis will attempt to argue that the internet is an important mechanism of social interaction, which should not be pigeon-holed to simply make what is anyway a facile critique of the internet (i.e. that the internet simply promotes narcissism), more convenient to articulate. This chapter will provide the skeleton framework through which this argument will be made. The chapter will provide definitions of the internet, communication, language, computer mediated discourse, and semiotics and these definitions will be used as a springboard to discuss how the internet has changed the lives of Greeks within the 20-25 year age category. Wider issues such as globalisation, self representation, creativity and technological advancement (Smith, M. and Kollock, P. (1998) 4) will also be considered in this chapter since these are intrinsic to the ultimate argument of the thesis that internet friendship databases such as Hi5 are crucially important and representative of developments in human socialisation patterns. The effects of these processes will be extrapolated within the context of the research question and they will assist the writer to achieve a more in depth understanding of the significance of the internet within the social circles of Greeks within the 20-25 age group. The models of analysis that will be used will be discourse analysis and semiotic analysis of text and images. The profiles of Greek members of Hi5 will be widely consulted and primary research in the form of interviews and a questionnaire-based study will be consulted and evaluated qualitatively in the analysis of all of the above mentioned issues. Therefore there will be a lexicographical and semiotic extrapolation of both text and imagery to assist the writer in answering the question of whether the internet as a social medium/social hub is a positive development and to comment upon the question title. Computer mediated electronic discourse is the label given to describe electronic discourses (Holt, R. (2004) 129) and the effects which they produce at the level of social interaction between humans. Lexicographical sequences, syntax, the length and structure of sentences, the use of colloquial words and phrases and elaborate uses for punctuation devices may all be considered to be a part of this newly developing discourse which specifically facilitates communication over the internet (Holt, R. (2004) 129-130). These aspects of language and how language is represented have changed to reflect and to facilitate online communication and the development of new relationships through the medium of the internet (Holt, R. (2004) 129-132). Images and self-representations will be looked at in minute detail; these images and representations will be deconstructed and looked at in their most basic terms. It is hoped that this focus will allow the writer to consider the research question in a comprehensive and minutely detailed manner. It is anticipated that such a focus will impart an original and innovative insight into the subject of computer mediated discourses and the increasing importance of the internet in the lives of young people (20-25) in Greece and Greeks abroad in the Twenty First century. CHAPTER TWO Research Question and Theory The Hi5 Website: What is it? This website is an internet community where friendships and romantic attachments are solicited by members. The site enables members to represent themselves and to enable others to view what they have to say about themselves, remotely through the internet. The site itself involves the use of a database of individuals all over the world who have added internet pages describing themselves; their characteristics and interests. These descriptions are referred to as profiles and are added to the database which may be searched by prospective members and member of the Hi5 website alike. Members generally add photographs of themselves, and their friends and sometimes the members can add links and descriptions of the music that they like to listen to. Primarily the website is aimed at individuals from all ethnicities who are in their twenties, and who would like to make friends, stay in touch with friends or form romantic attachments to new people over the internet. The site allows companies and other advertisers to advertise their services on the website, which allows the website to disseminate products and services which may be of interest to young people within the 20-25 age group. The website is also different from online dating services as the romantic connections which may be formed through the internet are not the principal selling point of the website. The ideas of friendship, self representation and companionship are instead emphasised. Certainly, the idea of romantic attachments is something which the website may facilitate, but its capacity to do so is understated and not focused upon. Therefore the website describes and sells itself as primarily designed to enable people to form platonic relationships through using its facilities. What is Communication? Communication, at its most basic level may be understood as a way to convey messages and emotions between human beings (Duranti, A. (1997) 23-25) (Jennings, B. and Heath, R. (2000) 91). This is done mainly (although not exclusively as we will see explained below) through the use of language (Kaplan, R. (2002) Ch. 1), which is a complex collection of symbols which have specific meanings and when used collectively may be understood to represent codifications of human emotions and messages. The system of symbols which may be understood as the building blocks of a language do not have meaning in themselves; rather they represent meaning when they are arranged within certain patterns which are objectively recognisable by others who wish to interpret them. Therefore the signals which are relied upon in the context of language are constructed; they are not generic or pre-existing. This complex system of symbols allows humans to make others understand messages which have a generic codified meaning, which may be understood objectively, and cognitively. It is important to understand communication in these terms within the context of this thesis enquiry as it is an understanding of this particular property of communication which will allow the writer to comment upon the language used on Hi5 in an abstracted and theoretical manner. This will facilitate the methodology of discourse analysis and semiotics which underpins the thesis. Communication is therefore a cognitive process (Ellis, D. (1999) 1) (Giora, R. (2003) 13). It is essentially a manipulation of the senses of humans through systematic representations of meaning and images (Ellis, D. (1999) 1). Communication does not just involve language; one can communicate at many levels (Ellis, D. (1999) 1-3) (Giora, R. (2003) 13) (Turkle, S. (1997) Ch.1). Facial expressions; sign language; body language; intonation; voice pitch and just a few mechanisms which may be used to communicate without the use of language. Language may employ these techniques in an integrated manner, as communication rarely adopts a singular mode. Therefore the clothes we wear (their colours and texture); the facial and bodily expressions we adopt; the mannerisms we adopt; various postures and the signals which we give out are all complex and systematic methods of communicating (Duranti, A. (1997) 23-25). The underlying system (culture) is what allows one to describe these processes as both communicative and connected with language (Duranti, A. (1997) 23-25) (Fairclough, N. (2003) 124). Language may be described through the idea of a discourse (Fairclough, N. (2003) 124) (Chimombo, M. and Roseberry, R. (1998) 5). Discourses are particular amalgams of how language has come to be used within particular spheres for specific purposes (Chimombo, M. and Roseberry, R. (1998) 5). These purposes may be political, sociological and even ideological in nature (Duranti, A. (1997) 23-25) (Fairclough, N. (2003) 124). What makes a discourse a discourse is the style in which the language and communication techniques are manifested. These may be identified objectively and regarded as belonging within one given discourse. It is often the case that a discourse will be uniquely identifiable. Discourse may be understood at the level of lexicographical constructions and syntax (Fairclough, N. (2003) 123-124) (Chimombo, M. and Roseberry, R. (1998) 6). In this sense the discourse which is understood is viewed in a more mechanical and objective manner. Discourses of this modality will mainly occupy the methodological framework of the thesis, since this type of discourse analysis allows one to approach the understanding of the subject of electronic communication and socialisation techniques in an effective and simple way. Language also becomes a communication discourse when it is used as a system of communication within a particular community or culture (Fairclough, N. (2003) 124). This was Bourdieus viewpoint (Danaher, G., Fensham, R., Schirato, T., Threadgold, T. and Webb , J. (2002) 1). Pierre Bourdieu (1990) was one of the most influential communication theorists (Danaher, G., Fensham, R., Schirato, T., Threadgold, T. and Webb , J. (2002) 1). Pierre Bourdieu (1990) has attempted to deconstruct the idea of communication (Danaher, G., Fensham, R., Schirato, T., Threadgold, T. and Webb , J. (2002) 1) and to assist him he used the analogy of a map and a journey (Schirato and Yell (2000) p1). He argued that communication involved rules, conventions which map a language and that actual acts of communication were akin to the taking of journeys(Schirato and Yell (2000) p1). This broadly fits the writers earlier definition of communication which has been explained above as it explains how language symbols takes on a level of significance when they are arranged within a given structure or amalgam. Semiotics Communication may also be understood through the idea of signs and meanings (Giora, R. (2003) 13). Semiotics is perhaps a more abstract and theoretical way to understand the way that language is used to engender meaning. Saussure (1989) argued that the meaning of language is a subjective exercise whereby individuals read meanings into what he referred to as signs, which do not have any intrinsic meaning of themselves, but have meaning imputed into them by virtue of the meaning which is attached to them by people (Schirato and Yell (2000) p19). Therefore, for Saussure, language was not as important as what he regarded as its most basic constituent part; the sign. The sign is what is represented in relational terms and not in substantive terms through the medium of language and images (Schirato and Yell (2000) p19). Saussure split the idea of communication and meaning into three parts; the sign, the signifier and the signified, with the signifier meaning the actual physical manifestation or form of the sign (an example being a road sign or the written form of a word), and the signified meaning being what this physical form evokes and the sign itself being a combination of both the signified and the signifier (Schirato and Yell (2000) p20). Saussure believed that a sign was a link between a concept and a pattern of sound (Schirato and Yell (2000) p20), and that these linkages came together to comprise a semiotic system which disseminated meaning. What is Culture? Culture may be described in the following functional terms: In any society, culture, in its most general sense, is concerned with individuals in a group. It has four main functions: It determines the various ways open to the individual within the group to develop the self, and hence the group as well. It specifies means for self-preservation. It determines the individuals place within the group. And, it determines the individuals and the groups perception of the world. (Chimombo, M. and Roseberry, R. (1998) 6). Culture also constrains the perceptions which an individual may be exposed to and given that this exposure is generally delivered through discourses, it is important to understand the connections between culture and individual perceptions. Chimombo and Roseberry (1998) give us an account of this connection: The specific culture of the group restricts each of these cultural attributes to a range of values or possibilities deemed acceptable to the members of that culture. Thus, the ways in which an individual can achieve self-fulfilment or perceive the world within a given society are limited by that societys cultural norms and practices (Chimombo, M. and Roseberry, R. (1998) 6). What is the Internet? The internet is a complex network of technological communication mechanisms (Crystal, D. (2001) 24) (Gattiker, U. (2001) 56). These enable people to communicate through the use of computers (Gattiker, U. (2001) 56). The internet itself is both a communication mechanism and a source of information (Gattiker, U. (2001) 56) as it also allows the user to search vast databases of information using key word searches (Crystal, D. (2001) 24). It has changed the way that business, politics, government, education, communication and commercial affairs are conducted (Gauntlett, D., Gottlieb, N. and Mclelland, M. (2003) 19) (Gattiker, U. (2001) 56), and has enabled individuals both to access and to disseminate information more quickly and effectively (Crystal, D. (2001) 24) (Gattiker, U. (2001) 56). In this sense therefore the internet represents a mode of communication which is electronic in nature (Gattiker, U. (2001) 56), and the world is connected through this mode. This electronic characteri stic of the internet means that various modes of media may be enabled through the internet and these media connect people on another level (Gattiker, U. (2001) 56). How has the Internet Changed the Lives of Greek 20-25 Year Olds? Greek individuals in the 20-25 categories have been particularly susceptible to the changes which the internet has both precipitated and facilitated. It is often the case that a primary concern of those belonging to this age category will be romantically unattached and seeking to form relationships, both in the form of friendships and sexual partnerships. Therefore, it is important for one to understand that the internet is integrated within the lives of Greeks between 20-25, given the role it plays in allowing for relationships to be instigated and explored. The internet is a forum for these relationships to be instigated and played out (Kendall, L. (2002) 139-141). In the globalised world where technological advancement features strongly in the lives of most individuals this is not a surprising that the internet would be integrated in this way into such a fundamental sphere of the lives of these individuals (Gauntlett, D., Gottlieb, N. and Mclelland, M. (2003) 19) (Crews, C. and Thierer, A. (2003) 3). It is impossible to integrate the internet to this extent within a persons life, without the integration producing noticeable effects in both the offline and online settings. It is possible to infer from this, that offline relationships as well as the motivations and expectations of people that become members will be moulded and shaped through this process of integration. This rationalisation will be borne out in the next section. The offline relationships of individuals who also have access to online channels of communication will be affected in a number of ways. For example, it is often the case that the internet simply removes the inhibitions which are often experienced at the outset of a relationship (friendship or sexual). In a sense, the approach which may be employed between two people who are interested in one another is made easier and the fact that the feelings of rejection which may be experienced by a person after a spurned advance can be compensated for by that person, through withdrawing communication effectively and efficiently. The person in question can make their profile invisible and can also choose to which members their profiles can be made visible to. In a sense therefore traditional methods of engaging the opposite sex (or the same sex in the case of non heterosexual encounters) in conversation have been redefined through electronic discourse. Crews and Thierer (2003) give us a springboard upon which to elaborate on this point by explaining the system of rules and conventions which underpin the use of the internet: There are rules. Some of them are mechanical in the sense that the architecture of the Internet and the protocols that define its function determine the way in which it operates and the way in which applications like e-mail are or can be supported. Others are a consequence of policies set in a variety of venues and jurisdictions and informed or motivated by a variety of constituencies. (Crews, C. and Thierer, A. (2003) vii). Electronic discourse have facilitated the adoption of these rules and protocols to allow for easier and more relaxed connections to be established through the use of friendship databases such as Hi 5. This point will be backed up more thoroughly using primary research in the next section, in which syntax and the formations of language will be deconstructed and extrapolated to show how the language itself is a vehicle for these particular functionalities. For the moment it is enough to point out that these electronic discourses are driven by individual preferences of internet users. Crews and Thierer (2003) reinforce the point: Some rules may even be said to be set by the personal preferences and behaviours of Internet users, almost independent of outside forces. The ensemble of rule sets does not form a consistent or even coherent whole and there are notable conflicts, especially as local jurisdictions seek to enforce local rules on a system that is patently global (Crews, C. and Thierer, A. (2003) vii). Another point to be made about how useful the internet has proven in the lives of young Greeks is that fact that in purely logistical terms, traditional forums which are used to meet members of the opposite sex are not very effectual for the person who seeks to meet new people. Nightclubs for example could be a classic example. These venues are often very noisy and crowded. Interaction in such environments may be stressful and cumbersome. Therefore people tend to stick within the groups of people that they are familiar with and it is often difficult, for individuals to penetrate these niches, and thus strike up relationships with new people. The internet, and in particular websites such as Hi5 remove this logistical difficulty. It provides a safe and comfortable venue where relationships may be initiated on neutral terms, and the conventions which have evolved allow for interaction to flow smoothly within this environment. In terms of online and offline relationships, the sphere of socialisation which websites such as Hi5 provides often brings these two settings together, and it is perhaps unusual for a person within the age group to led an online life which is entirely separate from their offline lives. It is perhaps true that there are rules and conventions which govern the behaviour of actors within the two spheres in different ways; however this does not mean that in practical, physical terms the two spheres are separated. In actuality the two spheres have become more integrated than ever, as the internet grows in influence and importance. The impact of globalisation, also has made the internet very important in the lives of people within the age category 20-25 (Aitchison, J. and Lewis, D. (2003) 1) (Johnson, D. and Turner, C. (2003) Ch.1). The world is more technologically interconnected and cultures and foreign countries are more accessible than ever before (Crews, C. and Thierer, A. (2003) 3), making them more relevant in the lives of Greeks within this age group. This globalisation of culture is of particular relevance in this context, for Greeks within the 20-25 age groups. Given that Greece has become part of the European Union, free movement between European countries has heightened the changes that have taken place on a cultural level to an even greater extent, and this has allowed for greater integration between cultures online. This has changed socialisation processes. In this sense the internet may be understood as a virtual space in which people can meet and exchange ideas. However, the ways in which these outcomes are achieved may not be understood without looking more closely as the way that human relationships are formed through the internet, through electronic means and how this spills over into conventional human interplays. To identify the age of narcissism in the question title is arguably a meaningless endeavour. It is facile to tie narcissism just with contemporary society. The reality is that this is a universal concept which has many applications within both the traditional and the contemporary. We find narcissism everywhere; it is not just a generic feature of the internet, or generically manifested through internet discourses. Therefore the proposition in the thesis title that puts forward the view that the internet represents social reality in an age of narcissism is an over simplification of a process (narcissism) which pervades so ciety at many levels; not just specifically through the internet. Certainly one cannot deny that the internet and the Hi5 site can be a vehicle for narcissism in terms of individual modalities of self-representations. The images of the body, images of self which are communicated through text and image convey narcissistic tendencies. Indeed, this however is perhaps not just a cultural construct, but a more basic survival mechanism. The title proposition which insinuates that narcissism is a purely self indulgent process therefore fails to understand the various applications which narcissism may have within the context of human development (which must be set apart from mere social reality). Let us look for example at human reproduction. This is a natural instinct within most humans, and narcissism assists the human in attracting a mate; the presentation of self within particular terms is therefore not self indulgent, per se (it may be this of course, but the point here is that this is not the only function of narcissism); it is also a tool which is u sed by humans to present and project themselves as attractive potential mates. Therefore narcissism facilitates human socialisation at the most basic of levels. It is not a superfluous mechanism in which social reality is defined as the title implies. It has a base function which assists humans to find and attract partners through the internet and electronic discourses. However, since the title proposition that the Hi5 website is social reality in an age of narcissism has been critiqued here, let us turn to the alternative proposition which is presented in the question title; is the site just virtual reality? This too is far too narrow a definition of what the site may be to be a credible description of the site. The fact is that the site cannot be simply virtual reality, given its function within both online and offline relationships. This has been argued above. The internet site involves a degree of integration between online and offline expectations and motivations which prove that it is therefore not just virtual; it cant be simply this. It is a complex interconnected network which cannot be pigeonholed into either the category of virtual reality or social reality in an age of narcissism. Both of these representations misunderstand the use and importance of the internet site to society. They force the concept of the internet site into a narrow b olthole which cannot accommodate the complexities of a mechanism such as the Hi5. To present this question as if a choice must be made between the two implies that one of the other is an accurate representation of what the internet site is. The argument of this thesis is that this is a false premise to begin from. The internet site and the mode of its dissemination, the internet has become so integrated; so important and so pervasive that to define it in such narrow terms is both to do it a disservice and to misunderstand its function, and use. The next chapter will turn to the methodology of the thesis enquiry. It will discuss the different paradigms of research and it will explain how the research methodology of this thesis has been chosen and the reasons why. An argument will be made that qualitative research is more compatible with the overall aim of the thesis enquiry and therefore it has been the most appropriate means through which the research is the be carried out. CHAPTER THREE Methodology This chapter will firstly ask some questions about the nature, structure and applicability of certain methodologies within the framework of this research project. It will then go on to outline which methodology will be used as the foundation for the thesis and will explain why. In this way the advantages and disadvantages of each methodological framework will be evaluated and explained and the suitability of particular methodological frameworks will for this linguistic and discourse orientated project will be outlined. Firstly, what is methodology? Methodology involves two separate paradigms; qualitative (phenomenological) and quantitative (positivist) (Darlington, Y. and Scott, D. (2002) 1-6). The main difference which may be identified between the two paradigms of research is that qualitative method involves a socially constructed matrix of understanding (Darlington, Y. and Scott, D. (2002) 1-6). Conversely the quantitative seeks to understand phenomena through objective observation and hypothesising (Darlington, Y. and Scott, D. (2002) 1-6). Characteristics of qualitative research therefore are that it tends to be specific, confirmatory, scientific and outcome orientated (Jensen, K. (2002) 230). Characteristics of qualitative research involve explanatory aims and the method involved tends to be more situational than outcome oriented (Bauer, M. (2000) 4). The aim of qualitative research is to understand and interpret viewpoints subjectively whereas qualitative research involves more concrete and deductive foundations of research (Darlington, Y. and Scott, D. (2002) 1-6). The methodology which will be used will primarily be qualitative in nature. There will be interviews conducted with interested parties in the field of friendship databases, there will be a semiotic and discourse analysis of the Hi5 website and there will be a questionnaire; the results of which will be interpreted qualitatively. Therefore the research design will be both constructed and interpreted qualitatively. The sampling of data will involve random internet searches of the Hi5 website and the writer will use themselves as a device to take in views and imagery which will be presented in the results chapter and assessed through qualitative means. The targets of the writer in terms of samples for the research will take the form of firstly, the Hi5 website itself, and then profiles will be consulted. The writer will try to focus specifically upon an analysis of just Greek profiles, since the website allows one to narrow ones search on the basis of ethnicity. It must be emphasised that while this does narrow down the pool of profiles, the writer has no control over which profiles are presented, other than to specify that they should be from persons who classify themselves as Greeks. Therefore the integrity of the research in terms of using random data is preserved. Sampling techniques are very important to preserve the qualitative integrity of the research and therefore its credibility. The writer has been careful to attempt to examine profiles from both genders and to examine representations of both the male and female forms, since the factor which the writer would like to control is ethnicity (therefore just Greek profiles will be focused on primarily). The writer has attempted to guarantee that random material has been generated and has relied upon the mechanism on the Hi5 website itself which allows one to generate random searches. Representativeness too was considered throughout the research. As the topics which were under consideration were imagery, self representation and the concept of the self and body, it was important to have sufficient diversity within the constraints of the research variables which were to be controlled (i.e. age (20-25) and ethnicity Greekness). Therefore the writer attempted to consult profiles of individuals of different ages within the 20-25 age categories to ensure that a representative sample was generated. Also as gender is something which is not to be controlled during the research, the writer was careful to ensure that an adequate sample of both male and female forms was sampled for research purposes. Taking into account the qualitative nature of the thesis enquiry, the writer has attempted to design the questionnaire through the use of open ended questions, the results of which may be interpreted qualitatively and subjectively. This of course might beg the question: might the open ended nature of the research design compromise the overall integrity of the research, because it may allow the researcher to manipulate the results? The answer is that there is no way to exclude potential bias in research. This fact is especially true of qualitative research. The reality is that any researcher is entrusted with the task of conducting honest, straightforward research, and the integrity of the final interpretation of the research will ultimately rest on these factors and how they have been adhered to by the researcher throughout the research. The qualitative framework of the research is therefore not a bar to the derivation of results that are fair and meaningful. To presume that qualitat ive research might be somehow less valuable than quantitative research on these grounds is not a fair critique of the qualitative methodology, although it is a common critique of this paradigm of research. How will the interviews be conducted and interpreted? The interviews will be semi-structured in nature and will be carried out by the writer, generally on a one to one basis. An interview is basically an exchange of information, which takes place in a pragmatic and unstructured manner. There is a loose structure to the interview in that the researcher asking the questions may guide the respondent by setting the overall frame for the discussion through the use of specific questions. It is however, ultimately up to the respondent how they should answer, and therefore this is what preserves the integrity of the research, as the researcher must record the answers accurately and must interpret them accordingly. The writer must be careful however, not to guide the respondents too strongly, by asking questions which are overly specific. It is possible to manipulate results through asking questions in a certain manner, and the writer has been careful not to appear to do this. A guidebook on qualitative research was consulted to allow the writer to understand the importance of ethical research and how to preserve ethics. This guidebook also allowed the writer to gather perspective on how to ensure the principles of representativeness and unbiased research, since these two characteristics of research are so important within the context of ethics also. Therefore this begs the question; what is ethical research and why is it important? Basically, the research puts the researcher into contact with people, to whom the researcher is not acquainted with. This forms a bond of trust between researcher and respondent which cannot be compromised. The research must preserve the principle of confidentiality and any respondents that were interviewed were assured that, if they wished to remain anonymous, this would be possible (This applies with the caveat that the profiles of individuals who were consulted online were presumed to have waived their rights to confidentiality, given that their profiles have been advertised online). Another important tenet of ethical research is the consideration that the thesis may be consulted by interested third parties, and the interests of these individuals must be considered. This is why the principles of representativeness and lack of bias are so intrinsically connected with ethical research. The writer was conscious that third parties consulting the thesis should be provided with a useful source which consists of ethically conducted, honestly interpreted research. CHAPTER FOUR Semiotic and Textual Discourse Analysis of Hi5 and Hi5 Profiles The Hi5 Site Itself Before the writer embarks upon a detailed analysis of profiles of Hi5 members, the site itself will be examined in the context of the methodology which has been proposed, as this will give a frame of reference for the rest of the analysis. Various themes are being looked at throughout the thesis. The themes considered of importance, as has been alluded to above are the female and male body, concepts of self, the presentation of self, social networks, narcissism, identity, computer mediated communication, the internet and interpersonal relationships. This thematic extrapolation has helped to support an argument that there has perhaps been a merging of the concepts of online and offline relationships, which in turn can produce noticeable effects in terms of peoples expectations and motivations. The Greek community will be specifically focused upon in this section, as indeed it has been throughout the thesis, although, of course this will be contextualised with a look at how this is rel ated to society in a wider sense. Firstly, the phrase Hi5 is a clever collaboration of words and imagery to entice and promote interest in the Hi5 website. The word Hi, the English word, derived from hello has taken on almost universal significance as a greeting. Aitchison and Lewsi (2003) explain the universal characteristics which are associated with the use of the English language: When people talk about the spread of English, they usually mean one of two things. The first is the adoption of English as a second or additional language by an increasing number of speakers in various parts of the world. English here means the whole language system, though of course it comes in many different varieties, and its global dissemination as a second language is an impetus to the development of new ones (Aitchison, J. and Lewis, D. (2003) 27). Also, the word hi is often transposed from the English language and used within other languages to mean hello. It is often used by different cultures and forms an acceptable substitute for generic cultural greetings (See also Gramley, S. and PÃÆ'Ã ¤tzold, K. (2003) 1). The structure and syntax of this word Hi5 is also significant. It is informal and thus this is a useful way to target and solicit the interest of youth within the 20-25 age groups. The word hi is short and easily remembered, and when it is combined with the number 5, it forms a memorable brand (Cronin, A. (2000) 83) which is both relatively neutral, given its cross cultural appeal and easily understood. The shape of the combined number and word is also significant, as it is a symmetrical construct which lends more appeal to its already appealing form. It is therefore short and easily remembered; essential ingredients of a brand which is intended to appeal to the interest of observers who will usually not make an effo rt to remember such things. As you enter the Hi5 site, the caption which is visible alongside the top of the website is the question whos in?. This is both an invitation to the visitor to explore the website and it is also a tactic to generate and capture the interest of the visitor. It allows the visitor to the website to question any doubts which they have had about entering the website or engaging in the activities which it promotes. This is an informal question which is intended to invite a similar relaxed response from the person reading it. It is an invitation and also a question; sparking interest and perhaps an idea that the person who is not in will miss something. Also, the word in has been well chosen by the disseminator of this website message; it reminds the reader of a common colloquial expression used to describe popularity. The expression; the in crowd or fashion that is in is a cross cultural phrase to connote popularity and acceptability. The overwhelming impression which the website generates is that it is principally targeted at multicultural youth. It is colourful and often has butterflies, flowers of other neutral images transposed onto the pages of profiles to add unique texture and appealing formats. There are options for the visitor to the website to listen to music and there is a gallery of selected member profiles which is easily accessible, and it shows the visitor to the site. Photographs of smiling youths occupy most of the available space on the homepage of the website, and this is intended to give the website an air of acceptability and to project that it is a lively community, with many young and attractive people involved in it. Slogan: Discourse and Semiotic Analysis The slogan of the website is displayed prominently underneath the photograph of a particularly attractive young black man who is smiling and has his eyes closed because he is laughing. This projects as a personification of the ultimate message of the website; that the website is young; it involved young people and that it is fun and neutral. The slogan reads: Meet new people Connect with friends Express yourself. Linguistically, the slogan is firstly palatable. It takes the form of three short sharply defined sentences of 2-3 words each. Each sentence is physically similar in length; it is punchy and memorable. A common technique used by advertisers to encourage viewers to remember messages is to represent them in these terms; so that they are easily read, easily seen; easily interpreted and they convey messages which do not require much effort to decode or to remember. This slogan is effective for these reasons. Linguistically and in terms of the ultimate message which is being conveyed the slogan does not take too long to read and digest; it is friendly and inviting and it promises that the reader will experience beneficial results if they become involved with the website. These promises take a neutral, relaxed tone and this arguably makes them more believable. The slogan has three stars; one beside each new sentence, punctuating the sentence and drawing the readers attention to where each sentence begins and ends. Underneath the slogan is a large image with the words sign up now written in bold, large letters, on a luminous background. This conveys a message of immediacy; it implies that signing up is an easy and fast process, which can be completed now. It gives the reader the impression that the website will improve their social lives and will allow them to connect with friends. Framing the personalities of the people who are already members and introducing them as friends to the viewer of the homepage who may be thinking of joining is a clever technique to generate the interest of the reader and to inform them of the neutrality of the site and the benefits which may be in store for them if they take the plunge and sign up now. Finally, there is the promise that joining the website will allow the reader to express themselves, which is conveyed through the slogan. This is important as it signals that the website is about self representation and self expression as much as it is about socialisation (Indeed the perspective of Holliday, A., Hyde, M. and Kullman J. ((2004) 38) is similar). It therefore conveys a twin promise to the reader; that the person will benefit through acquiring a new prospective network of friends and that it will allow the reader to express their personalities in a neutral, safe and friendly environment. The emphasis however, is on the social aspect of the website, suggesting that the selling point is really about enticing new visitors to the site to attempt to meet new people and make new friends through the site. Linguistically, it is significant that two sentences out of three contain enticements to socialise, whereas just one sentence out of three in the slogan invites the reader to express themselves. It is also significant that the invitation to express oneself comes at the end of the slogan. Conversely, context and imagery itself is also important, even if they do not of themselves represent generic language. Aitchison and Lewis (2003) show us how this context and the idea of silence communication devices which are both extraneous to language are nevertheless important: The ideal of good communication..may be presented as universal, but on inspection it clearly is not. Ethnographic and sociolinguistic research has shown that discourse norms concerning silence, directness, formality, conflict and emotional expression are variable both within cultures and between them. We have plenty of evidence, for example, that in some speech communities, extended silences in conversation are not remarkable. Depending on context, they can signal respect, intimacy and other meanings (Aitchison, J. and Lewis, D. (2003) 31). In this way, the website is quite an innovative idea, since it has married the concepts of imagery, text and context together to facilitate communication between Greek 20-25 year olds. Micro Analysis Section This section will import two profiles of Greek youth who use the site. Their profiles have been imported as samples of data and the writer will conduct a semiotic and discourse analysis of them to articulate through primary research samples, the main points which have been made in the introductory sections. Images of body, self representations will be analysed, and ideas of creativity will be looked at. In this sense online/offline relationships will be examined and one will be in a position to comment on how this has affected the ideas of motivations and expectations. The profiles which will be looked at have been presented below and these will be key to the discussions which will dominant this section. Profile of George: Greek Member Profile (25)[i] hi5 url https://Georgez3.hi5.com Sex /Age /Status Male / 25 / Committed Looking To Just look around Birthday July 29 Location Athens, Greece Hometown Psihiko About Me xmmm kanena sxolio. Who Id Like To Meet kapoia pou na tis moiazei. Interests Traveling,shopping,movies,cars,clubbing,diving,snowboarding,lastly opws ola ta arsenika gynaikes..gynaikesgynaikes!!! Favorite Song Kernaw apopse egw,giortazo enan akomi kaimo,mia kainourgia pligi,pou molis anoixes pano mou esu!!XTUPA KIALO THA TO ANEXO DEN PETHENO ETSI APLA,THA PALEPSO..kai an nikisis..kai an xaso..min fovase tha to xeperaso.. Favorite Quote otan agapas kati asto na figi makria,an girisi einai diko sou. An den girisi, den itane pote. Languages Other, German, English Occupation Sales Department Workplaces Medical Company Analysis Georges profile above firstly allows us to see that he is in a committed relationship. His expectations from the site are merely so that he may have a look around. He has included his birthday and his location (Athens), as well as his hometown. There is a link to his personal profile within the site itself, and there is a detailed section where George may describe his interests. There is a photo of George (this has not been imported but may be seen by following the link the writer has indicated in the endnote above). The picture on the website shows George in a relaxed pose, in a sunny continental location. George uses two languages to describe himself. These are perhaps Greek and English, given Georges nationality. He describes his occupation as being in a sales department of a medical company, and he indicates that he is both fluent in German, English and another language. These are easily visible through the lines and boxes which the website allows the profile to be constructed wi thin. In terms of a linguistic perspective, the syntax within which these representations of self are constructed is important (Holtgraves, T. (2002) 9). We see the use of dots (..) to punctuate sentences. We can also see the use of exclamation marks and capslock text where George describes his favourite song. George is adopting a relaxed and friendly lack of formality and this evidences that he has responded to the signals which we have seen examined in the Hi5 website analysis section. Perhaps George wishes to reproduce this discourse. One may only speculate about this nevertheless, it is interesting that George has clearly followed the same relaxed, informal format as the website for the expression and representation of his own profile. Perhaps he wishes to show that he fits in or perhaps he has not realised that he has clearly reproduced both the lexicographical constructions and syntax of the website itself (this may be seen through Georges use of dots etc) and the overall communicati on modality; which is a relaxed and informally friendly context. Carter (2004) gives us some useful perspective here the usefulness of repletion as a linguistic device in computer mediated discourse: In the case of pattern forming choices such as various forms of repetition, the speakers use the patterns to converge their way of seeing things and to create a greater mutuality between them. The creativity grows from mutual interaction rather than from individual innovation. (Carter, R. (2004) 102). It is also clear that George wishes to represent himself as an active person given his emphasis on sports and cars (Holtgraves, T. (2002) 9). He also has sedentary interests (movies), and it is interesting how he has chosen a word which is probably more American than English or Greek. The multi cultural ethos of the website therefore is being simultaneously both subconsciously recognised and subscribed to by George but also projected through his choice of words. In terms of this summation; one can ask is Hi5 an electronic space for meeting new people, staying connected with friends and sharing ideas? Clearly it is. We can see this even through a superficial analysis of what George has to say about himself. It is clear that he wishes to involve himself in a network of people for the purposes of these socialisation goals. However, one may take the analysis a step further and ask, specifically in relation to Georges profile; is this evidence of virtual reality or social reality in the age of narcissism? The answer is as has been extrapolated in the introductory sections; neither description is accurate. One may see aspects of each description but arguably neither accurately reflects the intentions and expectations of George through his involvement with the Hi5 website; and accordingly no imputation may be made about the significant of the Hi5 website on this basis. Ostensibly, there does not appear to have been a narcissistic account of Georges life projected by himself. One would expect a narcissistic account to include outlandish claims or propositions which would appear unbelievable. The converse is actually true; there is no palpable narcissism. Although it must be stated that this is a speculation; it is impossible to be sure exactly how accurate Georges account of himself really is. One can only conjecture on the basis of the information which is at hand; and the methodology is clearly a subjective and qualitative one which provides scope for such rationale. Therefore the Hi5 site cannot be regarded as merely virtual reality or social reality in the age of narcissism. This rationale will be further explored in the next section; an analysis of another Greek profile holder; Iwanna. Profile of Iwanna: Greek Profile Member (21)[ii] Sex /Age Female / 22 / Looking To Just look around Birthday October 8 Location Athens, Greece Hometown N.Filothei Sexual Orientation Straight Drinker Socially Smoker No Interests dancing(modern jazz, RB),books,movies,travelling,shopping. Glitter Graphics Favorite Song Morandi Love Me,Dimi Phaze vs Mary Jeras All this love, Marc O Tool Let It Go, CLUB 01 You got the love , Give it back Favorite TV Shows lost, friends, desperate housewives, punkd Favorite Books Da vinci code Favorite Quote Allazei kata kairous Workplaces ntua Analysis This member introduces themselves by drawing our attention to the fact that she is straight and has a general interest in film, literature and television. She identifies favourite books and TV shows. She is interested in music; a fact bourn out by the level of detail one can see in her description of her tastes. Perhaps it is significant that she identifies music more specifically than any other pastime. This gives us a clue as to the level of interest and engagement she feels with this particular medium of communication. She also identifies a related interest, dancing and this augments and reinforces her obvious preference for musical forms of entertainment. Firstly, in semiotic terms, the observer of this profile is struck by the contrast between the two profiles in terms of colour. The most obvious manifestation of this is the large image of a cute animal. If we rationalise this in semiotic terms; it is clear that this person is self-representing themselves as associated with the image which such a picture conjures up. This image could be softness, sensitivity, emotional sensitivity and femininity. Perhaps one can argue that this picture gives us a clue, not only about the gender of the profile member, but also the degree to which the profile member subscribes to the idea of femininity. Therefore, one is perhaps struck first by the semiotic signification of femininity in this profile. It is also interesting to note that this profile member has done the same thing that George has done in terms of linguistic representation. There has been a use of informal language, informal lexicographical sequences and informal structure. It is interesting that we have perhaps identified here an iterative pattern of lexicographical structures. This is highly significant, since it is present in all of the random samples which have been gathered during this research. Perhaps therefore Carter (2004) is correct to surmise: The patterns may not draw attention to themselves in the same way as pattern re-forming choices; and it is also more likely that rules for linguistic structures will be conformed to rather than departed from..(Carter, R. (2004) 102). What can be imputed therefore is that reciprocity and likeness is important not only to the person who have designed the website, but also to the users since they see it as a convention which they both identify with and adhere to. What is also interesting is the conformity with which it is adhered to; this signals the importance and the effectiveness of such a convention. This member describes herself as straight but omitted to identify what her purposes are in relation to the use of the site. This is not a significant omission in terms of the arguments which have been presented in this thesis, as one can still argue that her purpose in joining the site was one of socialisation. Perhaps she is open to the possibility of new romantic linkages. Her photograph which represents her as an attractive youthful person, wearing clothes which show her figure could arguably support this hypothesis. Therefore it is clear that the Hi5 site may be regarded as a space where people can express themselves more easily; make new friends and sustain old relationships. In terms of narcissism, there is no evidence of this in this profile. This is significant as it tends to support the writers hypothesis that narcissism is not a process which could encapsulate, in definitional terms, the significance of the Hi5 website. CHAPTER FIVE Conclusion In conclusion therefore this thesis has looked at the growing importance of electronic forms of communication in the lives of Greeks between the ages of 20-25. These changes have occurred within the wider world, and it is hoped that the study has shed more light on the subject of computer mediated discourses and communication techniques. It has been argued throughout the thesis that the internet has changed the lives of people within this age group in a substantial manner. These changes or evidence of them have produced manifestations which may be identified at the level of electronic discourse and imagery. Patterns such as those arsing from gender issues; languages and fluency in languages; culture; cultural representation; self representation; self image; the importance of the internet and approaches to the internet were all extrapolated as themes in the research and their connection with the title proposition was fully explained throughout the research. The themes were outlined in introductory sections and were expanded upon as the research unfolded. Later they were integrated into discourse analysis and semiotic analysis of both text and image on the Hi5 website. Specifically, it has been argued that websites such as Hi5 which was the subject of a detailed lexicographical discourse and semiotic analysis contain evidence of these changes. This argument has been borne out through the investigations and the primary research which was conducted by the writer. Two analysis models were created through the research and were implemented. These were applications of discourse analysis and semiotic analysis. Primary research techniques such as interviews were designed, conducted and the results derived backed up the results derived from the discourse and semiotic analysis models. The semiotic and discourse analysis involved a contrast between both the male and female gender, and different perspectives of female and male self-representations, or gazes were extrapolated. Patterns, in particular lexicographical ones were found to exist in how both genders viewed and used the Hi5 website. One of the most important of these was the informality which characte rised each profile under examination. It has been shown that the website Hi5 has elicited much criticism from those who argue that these forms of communication forums damage human relationships and make it easier for people to distort the images that they project about themselves, in other words it makes it easier for people to artificially construct personas which do not necessarily exist. This argument has been rejected by the writer and this has been articulated throughout the thesis, and backed up through semiotic and discourse analysis of text and images. However, it has been acknowledged that self-representation can be regarded as narcissism; however it has also been argued that this is a mere tenet of self-representation, and not a holistic understanding. It has therefore been argued that the internet, and at a more microcosmic level, the website of Hi5 are meaningful and useful innovations, which promote creativity and enthusiasm amongst participants and the wider public. They are new spaces where people can expr ess themselves; where people can form new relationships and forge new friendships and romantic attachments. Bibliography Books Aitchison, J. and Lewis, D. (2003) New Media Language. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Bauer, M. (2000) Qualitative Researching with Text, Image and Sound. Publisher: Sage. Place of Publication: London, USA and India. Carter, R. (2004) Language and Creativity: The Art of Common Talk. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: New York. Chimombo, M. and Roseberry, R. (1998) The Power of Discourse: An Introduction to Discourse Analysis. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Crews, C. and Thierer, A. (2003) Who Rules the Net? Internet Governance and Jurisdiction. Publisher: Cato Institute. Place of Publication: Washington, DC. Cronin, A. (2000) Advertising and Consumer Citizenship: Gender, Images, and Rights. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: New York. Crystal, D. (2001) Language and the Internet. Publisher: Cambridge University Press. Place of Publication: Cambridge. Danaher, G., Fensham, R., Schirato, T., Threadgold, T. and Webb , J. (2002) Understanding Bourdieu. Publisher: Allen Unwin. Place of Publication: Crows Nest, N.S.W.. Darlington, Y. and Scott, D. (2002) Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field. Publisher: Allen Unwin. Place of Publication: Crows Nest, N.S.W.. Duranti, A. (1997) Linguistic Anthropology. Publisher: Cambridge University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Ellis, D. (1999) From Language to Communication. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Fairclough, N. (2003) Analyzing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: New York. Gattiker, U. (2001) The Internet as a Diverse Community: Cultural, Organizational, and Political Issues. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Gauntlett, D., Gottlieb, N. and Mclelland, M. (2003) Japanese Cybercultures. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: New York. Giora, R. (2003) On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language. Publisher: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Gramley, S. and PÃÆ'Ã ¤tzold, K. (2003) A Survey of Modern English. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Holliday, A., Hyde, M. and Kullman J. (2004) Intercultural Communication: An Advanced Resource Book. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: New York. Holt, R. (2004) Dialogue on the Internet: Language, Civic Identity, and Computer-Mediated Communication. Publisher: Praeger. Place of Publication: Westport, CT. Holtgraves, T. (2002) Language as Social Action: Social Psychology and Language Use. Publisher: Erlbaum. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Jennings, B. and Heath, R. (2000) Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ. Jensen, K. (2002) A Handbook of Media and Communication Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Johnson, D. and Turner, C. (2003) International Business: Themes and Issues in the Modern Global Economy. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Jordan, T. (1999) Cyberpower: The Culture and Politics of Cyberspace and the Internet. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Kaplan, R. (2002) The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Publisher: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Kendall, L. (2002) Hanging out in the Virtual Pub: Masculinities and Relationships Online. Publisher: University of California Press. Place of Publication: Berkeley, CA. Schirato, T. and Yell, S. (2000) Communication and Culture: An Introduction. Publisher: Sage. Place of Publication: London and New Delhi. Smith, M. and Kollock, P. (1998) Communities in Cyberspace. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London, USA and Canada. Turkle, S. (1997) Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. Publisher: Simon and Schuster Inc. Place of Publication: UK. [i] https://www.hi5.com/friend/profile/displayProfile.do?userid=60272482 [ii] https://www.hi5.com/friend/profile/displayProfile.do?userid=35523498
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Freedom can be obtained through the defiance of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations to find a sense of individuality. Ken KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËOne Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s NestÃ¢â¬â¢ is a novel originally published in 1962, which centres on the lives of patients in a psychiatric hospital. Symbolism, one of the many techniques, was incorporated into the novel, to convey the main ideas of freedom, and society versus individual. Motifs and symbols are vaguely different, in a sense that motifs are symbols unique to the novel, whereas symbols are universal; however motifs can be considered as symbols as it also represents the ideas of KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of the idea of freedom through the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs of their personal situation shows the reader theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The cuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s nest in this case symbolises the ward, and McMurphy and Bromden are the men liberating themselves as they Ã¢â¬Å"flew overÃ¢â¬ . Although both men Ã¢â¬Å"flew over the cuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s nestÃ¢â¬ , their pathways were different; Bromden escaped the ward alive, while McMurphy escaped the CombineÃ¢â¬â¢s possession. The symbolisation of the nest shows how freedom can have various meanings for different individuals. In the psychiatric ward, laughter is uncommon between the patients, so when McMurphy arrives and laughs despite Ã¢â¬Å"nothing funny going onÃ¢â¬ (11), the men are Ã¢â¬Å"stunned dumb by himÃ¢â¬ (11). McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s laughter is Ã¢â¬Å"free and loudÃ¢â¬ (11), and before his arrival Ã¢â¬Å"nobody ever dared to let loose and laughÃ¢â¬ (13). Laughter symbolises freedom as it allows the men to express themselves, regardless of their imprisonment of the ward. Ã¢â¬ËOne Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s NestÃ¢â¬â¢ conveys the idea of society versus individual by setting the story in a psychiatric ward, where the Ã¢â¬Å"CombineÃ¢â¬ (8) represents society, and the individuals are the patients. Prior to the arrival of McMurphy, the other men were oblivious to their unjust treatment, and their ability to rebel against Big Nurse Ratched. Society versus individual as a main idea represents societyÃ¢â¬â¢s pressure on the patients to conform to norms and the consequences of not doing so. The mechanised society, which Bromden refers to as the Combine, is a motif that symbolises the suppression of individuality to obtainShow MoreRelatedOne Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest Literary Analysis972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOne Flew over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest is a novel written by American author Ken Kesey, and set inside a psychiatric hospital. The story is narrated by Ã¢â¬ËChiefÃ¢â¬â¢ Bromden, and unravels the events leading to McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion against Nurse Ratched in order to achieve his long-term goal of Ã¢â¬ËfreeingÃ¢â¬â¢ the inmates. Throughout the novel, Kesey introduces a number of ideas to the reader such as the oppressive nature of authority and societyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to accept difference. By using literary devices such as characterizationRead MoreThe One Who Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest Literary Analysis1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof literature have comparable characteristics, including the use of literary elements to portray deeper meaning. Ã¢â¬Å"T he Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ and The One Who Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest are great pieces of literature which keep their main focus around the use of symbolism, hidden in the plot. Whereas Mrs. Mallard, from Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ , appears to be insane due to her husband, characters from The One Who Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest gains their insanity from Nurse Ratched, both authors incorporate symbolismRead MoreOne Flew Over A Cuckoos Nest And Girl Interrupted Literary Analysis1862 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesplatform of literature has two different windows. The first being the depiction of the author and the second being the interpretation of the audience. This concept is evident within both works this essay seeks to explore. In Ken KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s One Flew Over a CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest, a charismatic criminal, Randle P. McMurphy is admitted to a state asylum due to his will of serving out of prison sentence in a mental hospital rather than the penitentiary. McMurphy b rings in the outside world to the admitted patientsRead MoreComparison of Two Texts, Ã¢â¬Å"One Flew over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s NestÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"to Kill a Mocking BirdÃ¢â¬ 1914 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesComparison of two texts, Ã¢â¬Å"One flew over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s NestÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"To Kill a Mocking BirdÃ¢â¬ | How do the authors of To Kill a Mockingbird and One Flew over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest use literary techniques to explore the concepts of isolation? Isolation and courage in the form of racism and discrimination is an analogous concept explored in Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s novel To Kill a Mockingbird and Ken KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel One flew over the cuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s nest. The authors exemplify the conflicts of isolation displayed by theRead MoreKen Kesey s One Flew Over The Cuckoo s Nest1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s One Flew Over The CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest is a timeless classic. This novel has been subject to analysis through many different literary lenses: feminist, Marxist, and of course, psychoanalytic. One Flew Over The CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest provides a plethora of evidence when it comes to using the psychoanalytic lens. The lens in question deals with the teaching of Sigmund Freud. When reading this novel, the audience sees quite clearly that the world of psychology plays an impactful role in One Flew Over The CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreOne Flew over the Cuckoos Nest Research Paper1764 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesDrugs and Insanity Ag ainst Society The author of the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, Ken Keasey, received his inspiration for the book while volunteering at a veterans hospital. This is where he was first introduced to LSD. The moment he tried it, he became addicted, and began experimenting on himself with the drugs, observing the effects. The novel deals with the tyrannical rule of head Nurse Ratched in a mental hospital somewhere in Oregon. She runs all business and daily life in the asylumRead MoreOne Flew over the Cuckoos Nest: the Power of Laughter1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgreater authority has the power to deny a person of their laughter; which, inevitably, denies him of his freedom. Ken Kesey conveys the idea that laughter and freedom go hand in hand throughout his novel One Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest. Kesey portrays laughter as a parallel to freedom through various literary symbols and imagery in order to illustrate how the power of laughter can free a man who is under the control of an unjust authority. Through the characterization of Nurse Ratched and McMurphy, KeseyRead MoreLiterary Analysis over One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest Essay1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLITERARY ANALYSIS One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest is a novel written by Ken Kesey during a time in our society when pressures of our modern world seemed at their greatest. Many people were, at this time, deemed by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s standards to be insane and institutionalized. One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest is set in a ward of a mental institution. The major conflict in the novel is that of power. Power is a recurring and overwhelming theme throughout the novel. Kesey shows the power of womenRead MoreAnalysis Of Chief Bromden s The Of One Flew Over The Cuckoo s Nest 952 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe end of the Novel, the resolution was Chief Bromden had escaped from the mental hospital. It affected the mental hospital because many patients were happy he escaped from Nurse Ratched authority. Character Analysis: Chief Bromden - The narrator/patient of One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest. Chief Bromden is the son of the chief of the Columbia Indians and a white woman. Also, He suffers from paranoia and hallucinations, and received several electroshock treatments for ten years. In the novel, ChiefRead MoreSanity Like One Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest1905 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages1960Ã¢â¬â¢s to the late 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, the concept and interest of mental illness has been studied and discussed in countless different mediums ranging from films that tackled issues of sanity like One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest to novels that dealt with much darker issues such as schizophrenia in Flora SchreiberÃ¢â¬â¢s Sybil. One of the most controversial and talked about productions of the 20th century is Peter ShafferÃ¢â¬â¢s 1974 Tony winning play, Equus, which recounts Dr. Martin DysartÃ¢â¬â¢s encounter and treatment of
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
I thought I knew pain. I thought I knew disappointment. What I failed to understand was the suffering that can evolve from such pain and disappointment. Each day was a challenge, first running through the pain of shin splints, followed by a struggle with a hip injury, and eventually being confronted with knee trauma, which forced me to end my running career, at least temporarily. To the best of my knowledge at that point, the toughest situation I would ever face was the absence of the love of my life: running. During the following months, I felt as if I was coping with the most grueling challenge that would ever test me. Unfortunately, and to the horror of those around me, I was absolutely incorrect. The most terrifying words I have ever heard anyone speak to me: Ã¢â¬Å"You are very ill, you need to go into the hospital. Your heart is not strong enough to support your body much longer in its current condition. We will write a custom essay sample on Courage Emerges or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ã¢â¬ These words cut deeply, lashing both my parents and me. At that point, I came to the realization that I had harmed myself more than I could have imagined in my wildest dreams. The nurse practitioner held nothing back: Ã¢â¬Å"You have Anorexia Nervosa.Ã¢â¬ After being immediately admitted to Boston ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital, I spent the next weeks there recuperating and strengthening my heart through nourishment and rest. After I was told that shocking news, I made up my mind. I would do whatever it took to restore my health. I had not been aware that I was restricting my food intake to the extent that the doctors diagnosed, but it clearly began as an obsession with eating healthy while I was running. When sidelined from this passion of mine, the portions I was eating gradually decreased in size until they were no longer substantial enough to maintain my body and activity level. I was released from the hospital when my heart was stabilized to a point at which it was strong enough to provide my body with the necessary blood and oxygen. I was given a plan to continue getting the nourishment I needed to become healthy again. From that point on, I was determined to beat this terrible, insidious disorder. Challenges often bring out the best traits in a person, as my disorder did for me. As a result of my recovery, I have proven what I, and my family and friends, always knew about me. I am strong. The mental and physical pain I suffered through as a part of my recovery is reduced due to the great deal of determination that I have discovered I possess. I am healthy now, and believe that I have experienced enough pain and disappointment to last me for a vast portion of my life. I refuse to let anything bring me down again. What can anyone anticipate to learn from an illness? The best outcome that anyone can expect from such a merciless and omnipresent disease has revealed itself to me. I have now answered that question for myself: I know for sure that this is a truly positive life-changing experience. This journey taught me that I can overcome pain, disappointment, and any other challenges that I am forced to confront. In the presence of such suffering, my true willpower, strength, optimism, and courage have been given the chance to emerge and expose themselves to the world.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
Abstract This research is an in exploratory examination of the possible correlation between TV food adverts targeted at children aged between 5-12 years and their parents being persuaded to purchase the advertised products.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of food advertising in Australian Television on Children aged 5-12 years. specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It uses a content analysis of a sample of ads aired on TV during childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programming and interviews with 50 parents to examine how food advertising may influence childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s eating habits and their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes on the subject. Introduction Food advertisements are common in many developed countries. These advertisements are mainly used to entice consumers especially children. According to the Young Media Australia (1997 p.1), Australia is one of the nations with the highest number of food advertisements aired during child ren programming. Many studies indicate that a large number of the food products advertised in the Australian TV channels contain high levels of fats and sugar which are associated with a myriad of health problems including obesity. Interestingly, these advertisements are mainly aired during children programming. However, the main problem does not lay on the timing but the contents of the advertisements. Because of these advertisements, children are bound to show preference for these high fat and sugar containing foods at the expense of other food products that are healthy and highly nutritious(Gantz, Schwartz, Angelini Rideout, 2007 pp 8-11). This has been a subject of controversy among many stakeholders especially parents. In this debate, the relevant authorities especially the Australian Communications and Media Authority ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Television Standards have been put on the spot as to why they are not putting measures to address the situation (ACMA, 2005 p.6). The rational e for carrying out this research is to evaluate the impact of food advertisements on children aged between 5-12 years in the period between 2005 and 2010. The study awakens awareness on the role played by media in shaping eating habits.Advertising Looking for essay on advertising? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Previous research has shown that food advertising is very instrumental in persuading children to consume unhealthy foods and this has raised concern by parents (Harding, 1999 p.7). This study will examine parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes on food advertisements. It will also expound on the measures put in place to counter the effects of food advertisements. Problem Statement There has been a big outcry from different parties on the impact of food advertisements on television during children viewing time. It has been argued that such advertisements have negative impact on children and have led to parents becoming more concerned on their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s eating habits. As a result, it has been argued that they should be banned. Nevertheless, banning such advertisements has many implications and may not be the long-term solution. This current research will substantiate claims on the effects of these advertisements by examining their impacts on children aged 5-12 who have been termed as the major casualties as well their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes towards such advertisements. It is important to study the influence of food advertisements on children in this age range because obesity, a condition linked to unhealthy eating diets is having a toll on Australian children. Failure to address this issue will lead to the children growing up with such conditions, which may lead to other severe healthy complications like high blood pressure. In addition, this research will be an eye-opener to the regulation bodies to tighten their grip. Research Questions This research answers the following questions: Which age group is likely to be affected by food advertisements? Which parts of Australia are mostly affected by food advertisements? Do food advertisements in Australian TV influence children aged 5-12 years? What do parents think about food advertising during childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s TV programming and the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role in regulating it? Research Objectives This study is centered on the following objectives:Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Effects of food advertising in Australian Television on Children aged 5-12 years. specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To establish whether food advertisements in Australian TV during children programming have any negative effect on children aged 5 to 14 years. To establish whether food advertisements in Australian TV during children programming have any effect on parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude regarding their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s eating habits. Epistemologies and theoretical perspectives The ep istemologies that will be used in the research are: Objectivism (Use of content analysis) In objectivism, the research will attempt to find out the truth concerning the effects of food advertising on children. Subjectivism Under the research will establish whether the widely held belief that food advertisements are harmful to children is true. Research paradigms The research paradigms are: Positivism The research falls under the positivist paradigm as it has used a content analysis of advertisements. Interpretivism Interpretivism is applied in the study as it seeks to collect data on the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretations of the influence of these ads may have on their children and their own buying habits. It tries to understand the correlations between food advertising on TV during childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programming and the consumption of unhealthy food by children Critical paradigm Under critical paradigm, the research is a call for the relevant authorities to regulate food advertisements during children programming as they having healthy implications on the child-consumer.Advertising Looking for essay on advertising? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature Review Many scholars have dedicated their research on the impact of advertisements to the consumer fraternity (Watts, 2007 p. 8, Harding, 1999 p. 12 and Turner Crowle, 2010 p.7). The high number of marketing avenues provided by the ever-growing media technologies has necessitated this. One of the media where advertisement has been successful is on the television. Advertisements contain different contents and target different audiences. There are those marketing cosmetics, drugs or even food products. Most of the food products advertised on television are composed of sweets, fast foods and snacks and targets children (McGinnis, Gootman Kraak, 2006 p.23). Advertisement targeting children is a recent phenomenon. In deed, its evolution goes hand in hand with that of the television which became commonplace in households from the twentieth century. In modern times, the phenomenon has been boosted by the fact that parents are spending more on home entertainment, a fact that has given markets an added advantage and therefore enabling them to reach more markets in such children channels like Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. Another factor that has enabled that is given advertisers targeting children an upper hand is because parents have a high pester power. This means that they have more money at their disposal that they are willing to spend in buying goods for their children now than in the past. This has been necessitated by many factors like small family sizes, family planning and earnings from both spouses (Media Awareness Network, 2010 p.1). Given that parents have high purchasing power, they are likely to give in to the pestering demand of their children. Further, these Ã¢â¬ËunhealthyÃ¢â¬â¢ and fast foods are also convenient for busy parents. The parents themselves must have grown up on these fast foods when they were not considered unhealthy as today. Though a recent phenomenon, advertisers targeting children have gone a step ahead to ensure that a child will get what he or she wants when they go shopping with their parents. This is because modern advertisements targeting children address them as consumers in their own making and therefore the advertisers enables marketers to come up with ways of making their brand known which would in return influence the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s buying habits (Harding, 1999 p.4). The American Psychological Association has criticized this move by advertisers to exploit children, though not per se because of a number of reasons. The prominent is that children do not depict the traits needed for the mature assessment of advertisements. These traits include the ability of distinguishing commercial and non-commercial contents. The other trait is the ability of attributing persuasion to advertisements and therefore critically interpreting the advertisementÃ¢â¬â¢s message (John, 1999 p.12). The American Psychological Association holds that at the age of four, children consider advertisements as enter tainment while from six to seven years they hold that they contain information. Though a bit grown, at the age of seven and eight years, they cannot differentiate between information and persuasion. At ten to twelve years, children are already entering teen hood and therefore comprehend aims of advertisements but are not able to expound on sales techniques (Kunkel et al, 2004 p.13). In a nut-crack, the effects of food advertising are many. There is substantial evidence pointing that food advertising leads to consumption of junk foods that lead to weight related complexities like overweight and obesity among children. By 2010, the World Health Organization estimates of children with overweight concerns stood at 42 million (WHO, 2010). In the period between 2007 and 2008, Australia had an estimated eight percent of her children being obese while seventeen percent were overweight (Turner Crowle, 2010 p.5-12). There is a high likelihood of obese or overweight children growing up to obe se adults and as a result prone to attack by chronic diseases like high blood pressure and diabetes (WHO, 2010 p.1). This then poses a challenge for society due to health and production costs. Although such ailments have a direct effect on the affected countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economies, the full affects narrows down to the parents of the affected. That is why parents are increasingly becoming aware of the risks imposed by food advertising during children programming and therefore necessitating the need for the relevant policy makers to act appropriately. If a report by American Kaiser Family Foundation in 2007 is anything to go by, half of the advertisements during children programming is dedicated to food advertising (Gantz, Schwartz, Angelini Rideout, 2007 p. 8-11). These scholars further add that during the time at which children are most likely to be viewing television, there are no advertisements marketing fruits and vegetables though these are healthy products. Gantz et al, (2007 p. 9) also found out that apart from the products advertised making use of the appeal of taste; they also capitalized on other areas as if the alleged novelty and health benefits derived from the products with some said to contain important nutritional elements. Watts (2007 p.7) concludes that food marketing is Ã¢â¬Å"almost always for unhealthy products and this plays an important role in encouraging unhealthy habits which are likely to continue into adulthoodÃ¢â¬ . Research has also shown that food advertisements on TV not only affect food choices but also impact on brands and categories bought. The British Heart Foundation also found out that the effects of advertisement are enhanced by a number of factors. Simply put, it is not just the simple advertisement that leads a child to buy a certain junky product. Other factors include how the products are packaged, endorsements from celebrities, color and shape of the products as depicted on the advert as well as peer pressure (Watts, 2007 p.10). Lobstein et al (2005 p.12) identifies a positive link between the number of food advertisements on television and obesity cases in children across countries. Going by this study of February 1996, Australia and the US topped the list of countries with high number of food advertisements during children programming. The former had 39.2% of children viewing time dedicated to food advertisements while the latter recorded 44.4%. As a result, obesity prevalence stood at 19.9% in the US and 26.0% in Australia. Else where in Sweden during the same period, it had 21% of children programming devoted to food advertisement resulting to 16% obesity prevalence (Lobstein et al, 2005 p10). The above study and other researches done by different scholars all point out that there is in fact a close link between food advertisements and poor food choices as well as an overall poor diet increasing obesity complications(Ofcom, 2006 p.1). Although this established link between adiposity and food advertisements exists, it is more difficult to prove the causative link between overweight or obesity and food advertisements. This is because cases of obesity and overweight are caused by multiple factors and therefore food advertisements cannot be studied in isolation and extrapolated as an everyday life cause of the complications. Nevertheless, the counter argument still stands and therefore this provides for a call of the concerned authorities to take up the challenge and reduce childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to these harmful advertisements. The Australian Communications and Media Authority came up with new standards concerning the amount of advertising that can be aired during childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programming. The ACMA dictates that the maximum number of advertising period is 10-13 minutes per hour for programs aimed at children aged below 14 years. The imposed restrictions are also applicable to the repetition of such advertisements. Each advertisement should be aired for a maximum number of two times in a span of 30 minutes (ACMA, 2005 p.3). The Australian commercial television industry works under these guidelines. Despite the imposition of the above restrictions, food advertisements continue to lure many children to consuming unhealthy foods. As such, there is need for a concerted effort by the government as well as marketing and consumer groups in order to ameliorate the content and regulation of food promotion to children. Television advertises can aid by directing their marketing prowess in relaying healthy food messages instead of the current junky foods they advertise while the food industry acts as the medium in which all these are taking place (Hastings, 2003 p4). Research methodology The research will be conducted in a sample population of fifty parents and hundred children drawn from all parts of Australia. Sampling Data to be used will be generated from random samples of videotaped television programs from a sample of TV channels namely Channel 7, channel 9, channel 10, Nickelodeon and free view channel like go. These channels will be selected because they are popular with children. As such, children are bound to watch them more than any other channel. The recording period will be seven days selected when during holidays when most of the children are at home. The advertisements content analyzed will be those aired during children programming slots between 7:00-8:00 am and 8:00-8.30 pm on weekdays as well as 7:00-11:30 am on weekends. Coding The data from the content analysis will be coded using a prepared coding manual and entered into a database using MS Excel. The spreadsheet will have columns for entering the name of the TV program, time slot, and number of times each advertisement was aired in each program, number of advertisements per break, the advertisement duration. Others will include brand name of product advertised, type of product advertised (e.g. Junk food, fast food restaurant, healthy food, toys, sugarcoated c ereals, candy, crisps and pastries soft drink, sugared drinks, etc.). If children were portrayed in the ad and how (e.g. eating, playing, active, dancing, happy, fun, etc), how Commercials advertising are designed to attract and hold childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s attention to the food product (e.g. Action, sound effects, and loud music, cartoon, animation etc)? Opinions of parents on these advertising will be collected by use of a telephone survey using computer assisted telephone interviewing undertaken in the same period the advertisements will be recorded. A representative sample of parents of children aged 5-12 years living in different parts of Australia will be selected for the survey. The researcher will use the services of a market research company to undertake the interviews because such companies have extensive databases comprising of representative samples of telephone numbers used for weekly national telephone surveys, hence providing access to the target audiences. The questions th at will be used in the interview are contained in the appendix of this paper. Data from the content analysis will be analyzed using SPSS version 14.0 for Windows and interview data will be analysed using the grounded theory method and NVivo software. Coding manual During content analysis, a food advertisement will initially fall in three categories. These include a non-food ad, a healthy or core food ad, and an unhealthy or non-core food ad. A food advertisement will be termed as a health or core food if it advertises breads and cereals; fruits and vegetables; dairy and dairy products; meat and meat alternatives and baby foods. Unhealthy or non-core food advertisements will be viewed as those belonging to the following categories: chocolate and confectionery; fast food and takeaways; cakes and biscuits; snack foods; fruit juice; alcohol, and fruit juice. Others in this category will include desserts; infant and toddler formulae, tea; coffee, and chewing gum. An advertisement will be taken as directed to children if it uses child-oriented premium offers like prizes and giveaways, jingles and cartoons, if it emphasizes on fun, excitement and happiness, and if it hints that, the product will make children special or superior. In addition, the ad will be taken as children-focused if it uses famous children celebrities and sports stars to promote a product and lastly, if it directs pleads with children. If a food advertisement will be found to be directed at children, reviewers will determine if it has breached any Industry Code of Practice Guidelines on children advertisements. Variables Independent variables An independent variable is the central part of any research. It is secluded and manipulated by the researcher. An independent variable is chosen by the researcher to determine its link to an observed phenomenon. Since this research will be based on a social science subject, it is bound to have a number of independent variables. These included the types of foo d advertised, time slot and duration of the food advertisements, geographical locations of the TV channels, and age of children. Dependent Variables A dependent variable is the outcome of any research. Since the research is centered on the influence of food advertisements on children aged 5-12 years, the dependent variable in this case will be the level of influence that such ads have on children inn the specified age category. Another outcome of the research, and hence, a dependent variable is the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes concerning food advertisements directed to children. Budget The research will incur numerous costs given that the sample population will have to be drawn from all parts of Australia. This will be in form: Remuneration for the research company carrying out computer assisted interviews Telephone Computer disks for recording of ads ResearcherÃ¢â¬â¢s salary for time spent on content analysis Remuneration for the research company carrying out computer assisted inte rviews given the vast data and time variable Stationery and printing Challenges This research poses a number of challenges in this study process. As evident from the literature review section, the research relies heavily on recent research on the topic. This is because, generally, media influence is a highly researched field and, therefore, there are a myriad of resourceful materials on the same. This poses a great challenge on the originality of the whole study as cases of plagiarism may mar its authenticity. The research is also very subjective. It presupposes that TV ads influence children to purchase unhealthy products leading to obesity. The research does not put into consideration other causes of obesity like genetic factors. Though it is exploratory, the study relies heavily on the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions and therefore is prone to generalizations that may affect the authenticity of the outcome. Ethical Issues The opinions to be obtained in interviews will be based on subje cts with an informed consent to participate in the process. As such, participation will be voluntary. The research will take the necessary precaution not to harm the intervieweesÃ¢â¬â¢ confidentiality. Another ethical issue that is bound to arise from this research is that parents are likely to be affected by social desirability when interviewed. They may, therefore provide misleading information to interviewers in order to impress them. Interviewees may also find the subject of the interview prying since they may be victims of unhealthy food advertisements. For instance, parents could be purchasing takeaways and other fast due to being busy and not being advertisements. In addition, fast foods are cheaper than core foods, an act that may attract the economically challenged. Precautions In order to avoid stalling the study, there is need for the interviewers to maintain a high degree of courtesy during the interviews so as not to arouse the interviewees emotions hence interfering with the authenticity of the data collected. The interviewer should also state their mission before in order to prepare the other party psychologically. There should also be a guarantee of anonymity to the subjects in cases where any sensitive information like their race, salary, religious affiliation is requested. Reference list *Australian Association of National Advertisers (AANA), 2004, Commercial Television Industry Code of Practice, [online], http.aba.gov.au/contentreg/codes/television/documents/Code of Practice- July 2004.pdf *Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA), 2009, Review of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Television Standards 2005: final report of the review [online], http://www.acma.gov.au/webwr/aba/contentreg/codes/television/documents/revie w of percentage 20childrens_tv_standards_2005.pdf Crowle, J Turner E, 2010, Productivity Commission staff working paper, Childhood obesity: an economic perspective, Productivity Commission, Melbourne [online], http://www. pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/103308/childhood-obesity.pdf Gantz, W, Schwartz, N, Angelini, A Rideout, V, 2007, Food for thought: television advertising to children in the United States, Kaiser Family Foundation, [online] http://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/7618.pdf Harding, E, 1999, Ã¢â¬ËPester power vs. purchasing powerÃ¢â¬â¢, [online], http://www.fim.uk.com/articles/pesterpower.html *Hastings, G, Stead, M, McDermott, L, Forsyth, A, Mackintosh, A, Rayner, M, Godfrey, C, Caraher Angus, 2003, Review of research on the effects of food promotion to children, final report, Center for Social Marketing, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. *John, D, 1999, Journal of Consumer Research, Ã¢â¬ËConsumer socialization of children: a retrospective look at twenty-five years of researchÃ¢â¬â¢ Kunkel, D, Wilcox, B, Cantor, J, Palmer E, Linn, S Dowrick P, 2004, Report of the APA taskforce on advertising and children: psychological issues in the increasing commercialization of chi ldhood, American Psychological Association, Washington,[online], http://www.chawisconsin.org/Obesity/0 2ChildAds.pdf *Lobstein, T, Dibb S, 2005, Ã¢â¬ËEvidence of a possible link between obesogenic food advertising and child overweightÃ¢â¬â¢, Obesity Review 6(3). *McGinnis, M, J, Gootman, J, A, Kraak, V, I, 2006, Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity? Food and Nutrition Board, Board on Children, Youth and Families, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. *Media Awareness Network, 2010, Ã¢â¬ËHow marketers target kids,Ã¢â¬â¢ [online], http://www.media- awareness.ca/english/parents/marketing/marketers_target_kids.cfm Moore, E, 2006, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s childÃ¢â¬â¢s play: advergaming and online marketing of food to children, Kaiser Family Foundation, [online], http://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/7536.pdf Ofcom Department of Office Communications, 2006, Television advertising of food and drink products to children: Options for new restrictions, Update of Consultation document. *Watts, R, 2007, British Heart Foundation and ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Food Campaign, Protecting children from unhealthy food marketing, [online], http://www.sustainweb.org/pdf/Protecting_Children_Report.pdf World Health Organization (WHO), 2011, Ã¢â¬ËChildhood overweight and obesityÃ¢â¬â¢ [online], http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/index.html *Young Media Australia, 1997, Sugar foods and fast food frenzies: Report on the good for you or good to eat project, YMA, Adelaide, SA. NB * Primary sources The rest of the references are secondary sources Appendix Proposed Interview Questions Which part of Australia do you come from? Which age group do you think is mostly affected by advertisements? What do you think of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisement? What products have you seen advertised? Are some of the products advertised on food? Can you identify some? How were the products you identified advertised? What do your children think of these adverti sements and the products advertised? Do they ask to have the products after they have seen them advertised? How do you react then? This essay on Effects of food advertising in Australian Television on Children aged 5-12 years. was written and submitted by user Iker Klein to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.